Microprocessor and Memory Basics

Data bus, address bus, control bus

In isolation, the microprocessor, the memory and the input/output ports are interesting components, but they cannot do anything useful. In combination, they can form a complete system if they can communicate with each other. This communication is accomplished over bundles of signal wires (known as buses) that connect the parts of the system together.

  • There are normally three types of bus in any processor system:
    • An address bus: this determines the location in memory that the processor will read data from or write data to.
    • A data bus: this contains the contents that have been read from the memory location or are to be written into the memory location.
    • A control bus: this manages the information flow between components indicating whether the operation is a read or a write and ensuring that the operation happens at the right time.

Processor Schematic Architecture